Captive banks are created by financial and industrial groups or individuals to serve, first of all, their own organization. From English captive translated as “caught”, “prisoner”. Still such banks name pocket. Captive banks are less universal in terms of turnover and customer base. They can serve even a single client – their founder. Profit from banking is a secondary task for captive banks. Their main goal – the distribution of internal funds of the organization, as well as attracting third-party funds.
Captive banks create special targeted programs for their range of clients and provide them with preferential loans.
In Russia, mainly captive banks are used by automakers to provide credit services for specific car models and special programs with very attractive conditions for dealers. In this case, the main goal is the promotion of cars and attracting a larger number of customers, and not profit from interest and circulation of capital. Universal banks, on the contrary, create loan packages, focusing on the automotive market as a whole.
Captive banks carry greater risks than universal ones. So a crisis in a particular industry can directly affect a captive bank, leading to liquidity problems or more serious consequences. Gradually, the captive bank can grow to the size of a universal bank, as exemplified by Alfa Bank.
Captive banks can be created not only in the auto industry, but also in many others. The main advantage of this type of banks is the ability to create a unique offer for each target group of customers.